Realistic Arrangements


Illustration and Point of View


Users want to be able to easily compare their assembly with the images in the instructions.


How to ensure users can easily compare their assembly against the assembly depicted in the PIAs.


  • Users may have low SVA making it difficult to interpret two-dimensional representations of a three dimensional object difficult.
  • Users will want to compare the image with the assembly as it appears in front of them to gain feedback on the state of their assembly.
  • It is possible to depict the assembly task in a way that is very difficult to achieve in the real world for example by showing large elements in unbalanced positions


The object must be represented as it “appears-on-the-bench” in front of the user, in a gravitationally stable way that is physically possible for the user to accomplish.

Note: This may necessitate later changes in point of view to see other elements required for the fixing. If there is a shift in the point of view of the orientation of the object in space then the motion of the object between steps needs to be indicated.


Agrawala, et al. (2003)

Blanz, et al., (1999)

click here for complete reference information

Related Patterns:


Stable Point of View

It is desirable to maintain a stable point of view to make comparisons between steps easier, however this may result in physically unstable assemblies requiring the point of view to change so the assembly is shown in a gravitationally stable position.


Return to Zones

Return to List



IKEA - Billy Bookshelf

Step 8 shows the arrangement of the assembly to add the back, step 9 changes the point of view to show the most suitable arrangement of the assembly to add the shelves.

This free website was made using Yola.

No HTML skills required. Build your website in minutes.

Go to and sign up today!

Make a free website with Yola